Fossils paper cutouts in envelopes: Skeletal Resource Manual 1 per team 3. In any of the discussions expected with the class, select a few key items important concepts that lend themselves to interpretation, and introduce class to the Think-Pair-Share TPS routine dealing with those items. This is how “Active Learning” is done. This lesson fits well just before getting into the Hominoid Cranial Comparison “skulls lab” lesson. It also fits nicely as a more biological example of uncertainty in science, and could very well be included in the “nature of science” introduction to your course. First, you will need to get printouts of the pdf files at the end of this lesson. Make enough copies of the “fossils” sheets so you will have at least one sheet per team in a period, plus a few extras in case of loss. For a class of 32, you should have a minimum of 8 envelopes, each with a set of fossils for use by a team of 4.
Sequence information using items which overlap specific sets Relate sequencing to the Law of Superposition Show how fossils can be used to give relative dates to rock layers. Tips for this lesson: This is a fantastic lesson and I have used it successfully with both 5th and 6th grade students. When introducing this lesson I use the analogy of a laundry hamper, or in most cases, the pile of dirty clothes on the floor in their bedroom.
The older clothes would be on the bottom of the pile, kind of like a timeline of what they wore this week. When that laundry is collected and moved to the laundry room, the layers would get disrupted.
FOSSILS AND STUDYING EARTH’S PAST (Adapted from Discovery Education Science Textbook) A common method for finding the absolute age of a fossil is radiometric dating. Radiocarbon dating is an example of this type of dating. Carbon is in the air we breathe, and all living things contain Fossils also let us see how different forms of.
Carbon Dating Radiocarbon dating , or carbon dating , is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon 14C to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 58, to 62, years. Such raw ages can be calibrated to give calendar dates. One of the most frequent uses of radiocarbon dating is to estimate the age of organic remains from archaeological sites. When plants fix atmospheric carbon dioxide CO2 into organic material during photosynthesis they incorporate a quantity of 14C that approximately matches the level of this isotope in the atmosphere a small difference occurs because of isotope fractionation, but this is corrected after laboratory analysis.
After plants die or they are consumed by other organisms for example, by humans or other animals the 14C fraction of this organic material declines at a fixed exponential rate due to the radioactive decay of 14C. Comparing the remaining 14C fraction of a sample to that expected from atmospheric 14C allows the age of the sample to be estimated.
The technique of radiocarbon dating was developed by Willard Libby and his colleagues at the University of Chicago in Libby estimated that the steady state radioactivity concentration of exchangeable carbon would be about 14 disintegrations per minute dpm per gram.
Member beliefs What most LDS have been taught in church and believe as truth The leaders of the church, as well as gospel doctrine teachers the world over, have taught that many Biblical events and beliefs that people have had for centuries are indeed true, historical events. Joseph Smith and other prophets have made statements that indicated that certain Biblical events were indeed historical and not merely parables. Many of these Biblical traditions were believed as literal events by most of the general population in the s as well.
Global Flood of Noah. Adam and Eve were the first humans. Dinosaurs were never alive on this earth, because there was no death before Adam.
Carbon dating Carbon has 3 isotopes: 12C – stable 13C – stable 14C – radioactive Abundance: 12C = % 13C = % 14C = %%.
What are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks and which picture is a representation of that rock type. ABCTypes of rock Igneous – think of the word ignites Formed from solidified molten rocksMetamorphic Think of the word magmaFormed when other rocks are changed by heat, pressure, and chemical reactionsSedimentary – Formed when combinations of rock fragments, seashells, and chemicals are composed in layers and hardens The Earths Story UniformitarianismTheory: Geologic change is gradual Scientist: HuttonTo help me remember: Geologic change is suddenScientist: LyellTo help me remember: Think of catastrophe disaster Hutton known as the father of GeologyLyell went against Uniformitarianism and believed the present is the key to the future4Current theoryModern geology current theory:
3 – Fungi, Bacteria, and Lichens
By Deborah Netburn Jun 07, At the time the site was occupied by early hominins, it would have been a cave, but the covering rock and much of the sediment were removed in the s. Over the last two decades, a combination of genetic evidence and data from the fossil record have led scientists to conclude that the first members of our species evolved in eastern Africa about , years ago.
But a new discovery suggests a more complex narrative for the origin of humans.
This fossil leaf insect bears considerable resemblance to extant individuals in size and cryptic morphology, indicating minimal change in 47 million years. This absence of evolutionary change is an outstanding example of morphological and, probably, behavioral stasis.
So, how do we know how old a fossil is? There are two main methods determining a fossils age, relative dating and absolute dating. Relative dating is used to determine a fossils approximate age by comparing it to similar rocks and fossils of known ages. Absolute dating is used to determine a precise age of a fossil by using radiometric dating to measure the decay of isotopes, either within the fossil or more often the rocks associated with it.
New information needed to be introduced with parent and daughter isotopes. Once students are in their groups, with supplies, and general directions are given, they are on their own for doing their runs. They will do this 8 times. Once they are finished with their 8 runs, they will record their data on the class data table which can be on the board. Once all groups data is on the table, you can calculate the average for each run and determine a class average.
Trace evidence that the fossil record found in sedimentary rock provides evidence for the long history of changing life forms. Scientists use relative dating and absolute dating to describe the age of fossils. PowerPoint Presentation.
Geologic Time The most obvious feature of sedimentary rock is its layering. This feature is produced by changes in deposition over time. With this in mind geologist have long known that the deeper a sedimentary rock layer is the older it is, but how old? Although there might be some mineral differences due to the difference in source rock, most sedimentary rock deposited year after year look very similar to one another.
This means that a quartz sandstone deposited million years ago will look very similar to a quartz sandstone deposited 50 years ago. Making this processes even more difficult is the fact that due to plate tectonics some rock layers have been uplifted into mountains and eroded while others have subsided to form basins and be buried by younger sediments. With out individual time stamps the process of dating these structures could become extremely difficult. To deal with many of these problems geologists utilize two types of geologic time: Relative time places events or formations in order based on their position within the rock record relative to one another using six principles of relative dating.
Earliest fossil evidence of Homo sapiens found in Morocco, rewriting the story of our species
Simulated radiocarbon inventories, relative to , in atmospheric, oceanic, and biospheric reservoirs for the simulations shown in Figs. The atmospheric radiocarbon inventory over — is shown in each panel. Radiocarbon is currently used in a wide array of scientific and industrial applications, many of which exploit its radioactive decay to determine the age of carbon-containing specimens through radiocarbon dating.
The aging of the atmosphere predicted by these simulations has the potential to severely impact the use of radiocarbon dating. For archaeological or other items that are found without sufficient context to rule out a modern origin, radiocarbon dating will give ambiguous results.
Evolution: Radioactive Dating Fossils Activity with PowerPoint and Handouts. Hope Campbell. Teaching – LS – Change Over Time. What others are saying “Teaching radioactive dating was a breeze with this lesson- several activities make the concept more concrete for students.”.
Scientific measurements such as radiometric dating use the natural radioactivity of certain elements found in rocks to help determine their age. Scientists also use direct evidence from observations of the rock layers themselves to help determine the relative age of rock layers. Specific rock formations are indicative of a particular type of environment existing when the rock was being formed.
For example, most limestones represent marine environments, whereas, sandstones with ripple marks might indicate a shoreline habitat or a riverbed. The study and comparison of exposed rock layers or strata in various parts of the earth led scientists in the early 19th century to propose that the rock layers could be correlated from place to place. Locally, physical characteristics of rocks can be compared and correlated.
On a larger scale, even between continents, fossil evidence can help in correlating rock layers.
The first fossil leaf insect: 47 million years of specialized cryptic morphology and behavior
Fungi are primarily terrestrial, achlorophyllous, eukaryotic organisms that were at one time grouped with plants. Together with a few other groups of heterotrophic organisms, the fungi are the principal decomposers in the biosphere, releasing CO2 into the atmosphere and nitrogenous compounds into the soil. They also function as bioweathering agents and transformers of minerals and rocks.
Two Florida sites with human fossils potentially dating as late Pleistocene are Vero Beach (8IR9), Indian River County, FL and Devil’s Den, Levy County, FL (8LV84). Both sites yielded fossil human bones purportedly associated with extinct, late Pleistocene mammal fossils; specimens are curated at the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH), University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.
Stone Tools Ancient Tools Stone tools and other artifacts offer evidence about how early humans made things, how they lived, interacted with their surroundings, and evolved over time. Spanning the past 2. These sites often consist of the accumulated debris from making and using stone tools. Because stone tools are less susceptible to destruction than bones, stone artifacts typically offer the best evidence of where and when early humans lived, their geographic dispersal, and their ability to survive in a variety of habitats.
But since multiple hominin species often existed at the same time, it can be difficult to determine which species made the tools at any given site. Most important is that stone tools provide evidence about the technologies, dexterity, particular kinds of mental skills, and innovations that were within the grasp of early human toolmakers.
Early Stone Age Tools The earliest stone toolmaking developed by at least 2. The Early Stone Age began with the most basic stone implements made by early humans. These Oldowan toolkits include hammerstones, stone cores, and sharp stone flakes.
Live interactive audience participation
Edit Nothronychus was a member of the Coelurosauria , the theropod group of carnivorous dinosaurs that includes carnvivores such as Tyrannosaurus. However, more specifically, Nothronychus was a part of the sub-group Maniraptora , theropods which evolved into omnivores and, in the case of Nothronychus and its family, plant-eaters. A therizinosaur illium hip bone had originally been mistaken for a part of the crest of the newly discovered ceratopsian Zuniceratops.
Radiometric dating methods calculate millions of years instead of the thousands of years indicated in Scripture Difficulties Posed by Fossil Record In the same way, short-age geology is challenged by the radiometric dates of volcanic rocks within the geologic column that are measured in millions instead of thousands of years.
Powerpoint introduction Powerpoint introduction is attached. Each pair of students will receive a baggie with some ratio of one thing to another, for instance, 20 white beans and 30 red beans, or 45 screws and 27 washers. Background for Teachers Basic understanding of how radiometric dating works is useful. Student Prior Knowledge The students should know how absolute dating differs from relative dating, and should have some perspective on why absolute dating is important in dating the earth.
Intended Learning Outcomes 3. Demonstrate Understanding of Science Concepts and Principles a. Know and explain science information specified for their grade level. Use mathematical reasoning to communicate information.